Northern-most Site:Manda (Kashmir),
Southern-most Site:Daimabad (Maharashtra)
Eastern-most Site:Alamgirpur (Uttar Pradesh)
Western-most Site:Sutkagendor (Pakistan)
➤ According to Radio Carbon dating Harappan civilization developed between 2500 B.C. to 1750 B.C.
➤ Indus Civilization is also called as Harappan Civilization because the first excavated site is Harappa.
➤ It belongs to the Bronze Age.
It extended from Manda (Jammu) in North to Daimabad in South.
➤ Major Settlements are in the Ghaggar-Hakra belt.
➤ More than 1000 sites have been excavated.
➤ Copper, bronze, silver, gold were known but not iron.
➤ Seals were made up of steatite
➤ Majority of the seals have an animal engraved on it with a short inscription. The most frequently found animal is unicorn bull.
➤ They worshipped, Proto-Shiva, Mother-Goddess, Bull, and Pipal tree
.➤ Harappan civilization was the first urban civilization.
➤ Their Pottery was red or black Pottery
➤ The script was pictographic.The writing was Boustrophedon
.➤ Mohenjodaro a Sindhi word meaning “Mound of the dead.”
➤ Rakhigarhi is the latest site discovered in India.
➤ Indus people were the first to produce cotton in the world.
Note : Two big mounds of Harappan sites found at Rakhigarhi in Hisar district of Haryana in January 2014. It has led to archaeologists establishing it as the biggest Harappan civilization site.
Important Archaeological Findings
Harappa : Stone symbols of Lingam (male sex organ) and Yoni (female sex organ), Painted pottery, Clay figures of Mother Goddess, Wheat and Barley in wooden mortar, Copper scale, Crucible for bronze, Copper-made mirror, Vanity box, Dice. 6 Granaries in row, Working floors, Workmen’s quarters, Virgin-Goddess (seal), Cemetery (R-37, H).
Mohenjodaro : Great Bath, Great Granery (the largest build ing of civilization), Assembly hall, Shell strips, Pashupati Mahadeva/ Proto-Shiva (seal), Bronze Image of a nude woman dancer, Steatite image of bearded man, Human skeletons huddled together, The evidence of an Indian ship (figured on a seal). Painted seal (Demi-God), Clay figures of Mother Goddess, A fragment of woven cotton, Brick Kilns, 2 Mesopotamian seals, 1398 seals (57% of total seals of Harappan civilization), Dice.
Chanhudaro : City without a citadel, Inkpot, Lipstick; Metal-workers’, shell-ornament makers’ and bead-makers’ shops; Imprint of dog’s paw on a brick, Terracotta model of a bullock cart, Bronze toy cart.
Lothal : Dockyard, Rice husk; Metal-workers’, shell-ornament makers’ and bead-makers’ shopes; Fire altars, Terracotta figurine of a horse, Double burial (burying a male and a female in a single grave), Terracotta model of a ship, Dying vat, Persian / Iranian seal, Baharainean seal, Painted jar (bird and fox).
Kalibanga : Ploughed field surface (Pre-Harappan), 7 Fire altars, Decorated bricks, Wheels of a toy cart, Mesopotamian cylindrical seal.
Banawali : Lack of chess-board or gridiron pattern town planning, Lack of systematic drainage system, Toy plough, Clay figures of Mother Goddess.
Dholavira : A unique water harnessing system and its storm water drainage system, a large “well and a bath (giant water reservoirs), Only site to be divided into 3 parts, Largest Harappan inscription used for civic purposes, A stadium.
Surkotada : Bones of horse, Oval grave, Pot burials.Daimabad : Bronze images (Charioteer with chariot, ox, elephant and rhinoceros)
IMPORTANT HARAPPAN SITES-Site Excavator-Present Position
- Harappa – Dayaram Shahani (1921) – Montogomery (Punjab) Pakistan
- Mohenjodaro – Rakhal Das Banerjee (1922) – Sindh (Pakistan)
- Kalibanga-Amlananda Ghosh(1951),B.V. Lal & B.K.hapar (1961) – Hanumangarhi(Rajasthan)
- Lothal – S. R. Rao (1957) – Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
- Banwali – -R. S. Bist (1973) – Hissar (Haryana)
- Rangpur – M. S. Vatsa (1931) – Gujarat (near Madar river)
- Ropar – Y. D. Sharma (1955-56) – Punjab (Sutlej Bank)
- Alamgirpur-Y. D. Sharma-Meerut (Hindon river)
- Sutkagendor – A. Stein, George Dales – Baluchistan (Dashak river)
- Surkotada – J. P. Joshi (1964) – Gujarat (Kuchchh Plain)
- Dabarkot – Macay (1935) – Baluchistan
- Chanhudaro – N. G. Majumdar (1931) – Sindh (Pakistan)
- Ali Murad – K. M. Kazzak – Sindh (Pakistan)
- Mitathal – Punjab University – Bhiwani
- Rakhi Garhi – Suraj Bhan – Jind (Haryana)
- Sutkakoh – Dales (1962) – 8 km from Penn
- Manda – Jagpati Joshi – Akhnur
- Dholavira – J.P.Joshi (1967-68) – Kutchh,Gujrat
TOWNS NEAR RIVER BANKS
- Sutkakoh-Shadi Kaur
- Bhagtrav-Kissagar confluence
- Kot Diji-Indus